Agricultural labor: Large quantity, low quality

In the past 10 years, there have been 15 million workers with jobs, of which about 50% are in the agricultural sector. However, this group has jobs but is not productive (productivity in agriculture is only 1/4 of industry and equal to 1/3 of the service sector).

According to the survey results of the Office of Social Criticism and Assessment Support (belonging to the Vietnam Union of Science and Technology Association), in the past 10 years (2001-2010), there were 15 million workers with jobs, of which about 50% worked in the agricultural sector. However, this group has jobs but is not productive (productivity in agriculture is only 1/4 of industry and equal to 1/3 of the service sector).

According to the same report, in the past 10 years, about 65% of enterprises are small or micro enterprises with low productivity, weak competitiveness, in efficiency and production of products lacking added value.

The survey also showed that the majority of Vietnamese workers are at risk of not being protected by the social protection system because they work in agriculture or the non-formal sector. While the awareness as well as compliance with the regulations of social insurance payment of enterprises, especially private enterprises in the country is poor. In addition, the poor implementation and implementation of the Labor Code while the Code applies unevenly to different types of enterprises is also an obstacle that makes workers always become "low-throated" people suffer from benefits.

However, during that time, more than half of enterprises had small labor size, less than 10 employees and less than 2% of enterprises employed more than 200 employees, mainly concentrated in the Southeast. Enterprises in sectors with high production value such as industrial and commercial production use less labor while agriculture creates 48.7% of jobs and contributes only 22.1% of GDP.

This is followed by local labor supply and demand imbalances occurring in various sectors, sectors and economic sectors. Excess of unsusiable labor and lack of workers with technical qualifications are quite common, many businesses increasingly have difficulties in recruitment, especially in industrial parks and export processing in the South.

Dr Papola, Office of Counseling and Social Assessment, said that while employment has increased, the number of people with jobs is estimated to have increased from about 35.6 million in 1997 to 48 million in 2009, but that has not reduced unemployment. The number of unemployed has increased from 1.05 million in 1997 to 1.29 million in 2009. The unemployment rate fell from 2.9 in 1997 to 2.3 in 2000, but by 2009 had risen to 2.6. The number of people unemployed and the unemployment rate increased significantly in 2008 and 2009 due to the economic impact of the global financial crisis.

According to Dr. Papola, the 1956 project aims to train 1 million rural workers each year in which rural workers receive agricultural vocational training accounting for about one-third but due to low productivity in agriculture, agriculture is increasingly not attracting young workers. The trend of agricultural ageing is one of the important obstacles to achieving these goals.

In the same survey, Dr. Papola's team of experts found that in addition to the number of unemployed people, the quality of employment is one of the major employment challenges facing Vietnam. The vast majority of jobs are in the non-formal or non-formal sector, with no regular employment and no social protection. About three-quarter of all jobs are rated as "vulnerable," such as unsc paid or self-employment; unstable and fluctuating income.

It is forecast that, in the next 10 years, labor in the agricultural sector will decrease in both proportion and quantity, while the number of workers in the trade and services will increase in both proportion and quantity.

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